The male reproductive system is composed of the following: male gonads or testes, epididymis, vas deferens, prostate gland, ejaculatory duct, seminal vesicle, penis, corpus cavernosum, and the urethra. The penis and the testes are the major reproductive organs of man, while the rest are part of the reproductive process. The vas deferens acts as the passageway of the sperm from the testes to the urethral opening. These are all found in a man’s pelvic area. 

How is spermatozoa formed?

There are several gonadal hormones involved in spermatogenesis or the formation of spermatozoa. The gonadal-releasing hormone or factor in the hypothalamus is responsible for stimulating the anterior pituitary to increase the secretion of androgens and Follicle Stimulating Hormone or FSH. The FSH, in return, will enhance the production of testosterone. During puberty, the testosterone blood levels of men increase. This true male gonadal hormone then stimulates spermatogenesis or the formation of spermatozoa or sperm cells in the testes.


The epididymis serves as the storage area of the sperm cells. With the help of the sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules, the sperm cells mature. Upon sexual arousal, the penis becomes tumescent because of engorged blood vessels and ejaculation occurs.

Substances in semen

The mature spermatozoa are then delivered to the urethra by the vas deferens. On its way to the urethral opening, fluids from the prostate gland containing Acid Phosphatase (ACP) and the seminal vesicles containing fructose and essential substances mix with the sperm to form semen. Without these substances, reduction of the viability of the spermatozoa or sperm cells occurs.

Normal values

In normal persons, the sperm count ranges between 60 million to 150 million per cubic millimeter. The morphology of sperm cells shows regular heads and tails. Motility is also normal when 70 percent of the sperms are motile right after collection. In diagnosing infertility, seminal analysis can include other parameters depending on the request of the physician.

Without proper formation of the spermatozoa, the reproductive organ will not be able to perform its functions. 

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